[applause] >> thank you for the introduction and for the day this library to house to me. it is a pleasure to be here. the title of my talk is love and honor in 1812. patriotism of popular culture and the new united states. to 19, 1812, james madison made an announcement of the first were to be declared in the history of the united
states. "i exhorts all the good people of the united states as they love their country, as they feel wronged that they exert themselves." and made clear the expectation of showing love of country requires giving support to the war. of a moment of national crisis, patriotism was needed. he fell to justify the conflict to motivate the country to support the war. the stakes were high because although a majority had voted in favor of for not one single member of the federalist party voted to support it. the northeastern federalist took a skeptical view more than seven and western members of the democratic
republican party. a conflict with britain over national sovereignty, the american war of 1812 became of test of the strength and meeting of american patriotism. we tend to forget the word 1812 between the revolutionary independence movement and trans formative carnage of the civil war. the war between 12 has a dubious distinction the first to be declared in a modern democracy. and matters. politicians maintain power so with strict military and diplomatic terms the war of
1812. by the end in 1815 washington d.c. was burned to the ground, the national debt has tripled up at 127 million all the united states had accomplished was getting the british to maintain status quo all matters of dispute as there were before the war. trade questions, the boundaries, everything would stay the same. somehow the population regard did the war with favor. as seen as a popular referendum in 1816. madison easily won reelection in the early months of 1812 his hand-picked successor james
monroe had a landslide success four years later. hundreds of thousands of men cast votes for their party in that contest. the war proved to be a popular success. how did people come to form their opinions? far many more people in the united states roche about the -- the the war of 1812 band fought in it. the nation lost 2,260 men in battle of the war of 1812 less than one-half of 1% of all servicemen. many served and local militias in the service was more ceremonial.
the 617,000 combatants died in the civil war. to give you the difference. the meeting of the war of the war of 1812 can be found in popular print of newspapers and books telling about the war as in the battle field. contrast those servicemen with those in the newspapers. between 1812 and 1815 producing approximately 250 different newspaper titles from south carolina gazette gazette, a kentucky telegraph, a massachusetts week the messenger. one newspaper franchise for every 10 men.
not how many were published monthly or weekly but how many different franchises there were. if we went to assess of the war of 1812 we need to evaluate it as a cultural event as much as cultural. americans took instructions from popular print a discussion about national law of. the political speeches like madison's from folks songs to popular novels, plays, americans on every side proved eager to talk about love of country. that may have been dismissed as a waste of time and money as if not a disastrous displays hubris.
asthmatic says claim for those who love their country made clear, emotion became central. everything was to be accomplished -- contemplated through patriotic love. throw the war of 1812 the meeting of events were based more on the emotional language used to describe them other than what had occurred. europeans declare their love of country grew out of a child like devotion where american and french son celebrity fought revolutions from brotherly love. americans emphasize their patriotism grew from another
variety of affection, the romantic love of courting couples. consider those who raise their voices in chorus the love of country. the lyrics explained a soldier is a gentleman. he that won't stand to his post will never stand by his wife. since love and honor are the same. neither can exist alone but flourish side by side. fare well for a while. when we drive the british dogs, we will kiss it out with you. with the title of my talk love and honor that they are the same, men and women were told there is a fundamental connection between
attachment and national loyalties. lovers made the best soldiers and vice versa. the war of 1812 love story is anwr stories were intertwined so much now seems humorous. but the link between the two were liberal as well as big british. that today we may say love, marriage, the baby carriage had a practical effect to foster population expansion. high rates of marriage and reproduction resulted in exponential growth of the american population that have implications for success in military contest with british and native americans. when starting a family meant clearing of farm with the size of the population and
expansion of the territory went hand in hand for although the united states had no change in british policy the country did gain control of western land that was once claimed by in the hands. soon settle by whites and cultivated by a slave to men and women. so all members of the nation's populous whether they could vote to could assist in the process to settle and secure the nation's land. it was no casual choice of words when madison did not call on all citizens to support their country but far more broadly to all good people of the united states
as the love their country to assert themselves park ave included the entire population. excluding only that indian inhabitants the continued to struggle for their own sovereignty. i would like to bring to life the power of patriotism with two contrasting episodes. those who would suffer a military catastrophe and the other who embraced romantic patriotism. and became the most celebrated leader of the war of 1812 and future president, referring no doubt to the opening drama
win failing in the conquest initially and to the conclusion when general jackson had a spectacular triumph in new orleans. the language of love proved pivotal. win or lose americans found their imagination captured whenever assad was replayed. no matter how dire commentators could be counted on to put a block from public events. the war of 1812 provided the ideal moment to the being national statesman for the love of country. working to portray the conflict as a romantic adventure for those who go to war to win the hearts a
patriotic maidens. the thrill of romantic love contributed to the glow of victory. i first want to pause to look at contemporary theories of political economy. bear with me. i promise we will get back to soldiers but we cannot appreciate the significance of the switchgrass is serious scientific thinking that labor behind it. informal ferry, a freedom to love, marry and reproduce was essential elements of both liberty and american power. americans in 18124 berry well first of population theory. methodical government counts of all inhabitants even
average people have access to basic facts of the population. from 79 the the first census 3200 the nation's numbers expanded from 3.9 million of about 5.3 million. and continue rising sharply reaching 7.2 million by 1810. they increase nearly to fold into decades. the official figures were reported widely as soon as the returns came then. complete census reports were printed with county by county compilation made available for public purchase. also be cheered in most standard almanac as basic deprivation as ordinary farm
people want to bet their fingertips. there was a lot of pride based on the growth of the nation's numbers. despite the satisfaction americans took of the robust population, the strength of numbers left it vulnerable to the critique of morals. , after the independence british and americans questioned regulation, optimization brass white americans claimed to enslaved africans they supported ever-growing numbers of the nation's people. the british criticized plans of both counts. the british continued to cultivate ties with made americans supporting their arrival population united states perceived the greatest threat.
on the ocean britain controlled shipping forbidding the slave trade and harassing merchant vessels. but the traditional goal of population imitation because they thought was population montecito royal navy needed every hand it could find. the practice to board american ships provoked enormous controversy. said those efforts to put americans into the british nets. during political confusion americans and british main scattershot efforts to remain the better per two. the rising prices in the early years, pounded every element of the promise and the problems in the united states.
americans faced an especially important intellectual adversary in the form of the british fairest. he was the author of the book and essay on the principle of population. the subtitle and inquiry into our prospect respecting the future removal or mitigation of the evils that it occasions. published in england 7098 and reprinted in the united states 893. he offered his model population not as obstruction but on geopolitics. may cause of suffering censored unrestrained reproduction as a moral evil and argues the best way to
restrict one array -- runaway population growth for young men and women to delay marriage. they could spend a few more years celibate before they raised families to reduce the final numbers of children born to any given married couple and diminish the overall average size of families with in the country the chief object of the analysis was the rapidly expanding united states. to exert ever control malthus contended that america keeps increasing the indians will be pushed further back and tell the whole race is exterminated. how could the united states claim to be the strongest defender of freedom when it
denied the basic rate of survival to native americans? thomas malthus declared the right of exterminating where they might starve will be questioned in a moral view. thomas malthus had a good reason to be alarmed since the numbers and had been increasing. with no european ribose nothing stood in a way of the doubling of land and redoubling of population except the native americans. the united states was a perfect object lesson for the thomas malthus claim population fuelled aggression. as low saw a cycle made of americans saw as a vicious circle the continent wide open ground next day
supported expansion as the population of the settlement of new lands. the divergence tore the merits of population significantly increased tensions. in fact, precedent jefferson who is a part of the louisiana hot purchase had thomas malthus directions in mind as he engineered the purchase. but in formal possession of the region december 30, 893, one month later in february 1st jefferson wrote letter in which she confessed "to give the leisure moment to the thomas malthus work on population. careful technology it was of
sound logic jefferson insisted his theories could not be applied to the united states. he concluded in america " extent of the and cultivated and for tow land enables everyone who will labor to marry young. you can raise a family of any size" end quote. if thomas malthus claims the burgeoning population forced expansion 10 percent inferred of illogic that the limitless availability of american and assured for practical purposes there's no such thing as excess population. he reassured "however multiplied becomes effective. in jefferson's survey the right to reproduce them of
were fundamental liberties enjoyed in america and indians were overlooked altogether. like his predecessor comment madison celebrated population strength. they shared the view of their colleagues from france. saying fact not only trade but unrestrained reproduction. as jefferson wrote in 1815 his quote entry with british vanquished americans could be permitted to proceed peaceably to make children to mold our national strength and resources." despite the fiction that lay at the base of the hope that making children could be a peaceable process.
of the republican view the population was essential to strength was the most enduring legacy of the war. by the time the tensions reached the breaking point* of 18 to zero. americans ruffled between territorial spread of population and that thomas malthus regarded as a source of evil. americans argue romantic love encourage the opposite ofetween territorial spread of population and that thomas malthus regarded as a source of evil. americans argue romantic love encourage the opposite of the tyranny and aggression predicted. they claim true political liberty gave emotional freedom. the most exalted a motion was romantic love. as a virginia plantation owner explained thomas malthus was "in favor of resorting to lot to repress love. he said thomas malthus teaches us in the english
system one is death by famine or to live half of their life without affection. according to taylor england was offering a choice between starvation or marital delay, population limitation and emotional deprivation. and when so far to use opposition of thomas malthus to justify slavery. he attacks them as putting a moral slavery on his followers worse than any legal slavery. to propose to introduce celibacy who fails to notice the difference between a direct slavery to the absolute master and direct slavery?
and taylor's america all the os object to direct slavery it retains the right to reproduce. with all the other freedoms denied including the rights to the goal marriage but they never had rights reproduce that were in danger and england. african-americans and bondage had greater basic liberties and privileges than the free born englishmen. but white americans enjoy natural rights that were impossible to unimagined in the france and english iowa. france was the key area where it was spread public-private intersected, personal behavior was put with political meaning.
local american reprints reprints, along exurbs reprinted been newspapers and casual comments were very common. there is one funny and memorable "maxim" to stand and for the popular reaction. and author of the popular biography of washington at the time equally well known for a book on marriage said "i am very clear the bookspan heroes of our nation are made of at least of good stuff of the gentry on the other side of the water. but being good soldiers is not enough. nothing could save the and added states while the british could outnumber them
10 /1. it is population, population alone to save the begin. if this was not explicit enough we then laid it on thick to tell bachelor's and maidens if you truly love your country, marry and raise of soldiers then last year may. making clear population expansion opportunity states assurance of success overall rivals. the people of the country have long been instructed engaging and patriotic duty consisted and indulging in romantic pleasures. the efficacy was about to be put to the test. so now look at how war
stories converged once the military contest got under way. throughout spring and summer of 1812 before the first action of the war, newspapers related reports of the emotional status of the army has of this was the best indicator. various article stated callback the troops are in fine spirits or that they are and high spirits and we feel confident of success. the men move on with spirit and alacrity. but the first confrontation with the british and did in the utter debacle. in the end the general
surrendered 5,000 troops without firing a single shot. the country was not only shocked but certain emotion all shortcomings must of been to blame. to cause the national failure? neither the romantic patriots nor the fighters from the rank-and-file could be to blame. one man was held responsible. he faced formal charges from treason against united states from cowardice acts to neglect of duty and unlike in officer in contact. what did they mean? the former charges included the claimant that through his negligence the armor of
the army abated. it was one of the general's most important to duties. summing up the court held the northwestern army of united states seemed in fine spirits and eager to meet the approaching army was thwarted by a general willing to enter into a shameful capitulation for soldiers who were once in fine spirits had there are dirt and sensibly abated. through the war of 1812 who had a sterling reputation. and a governor of the michigan territory. the inability to match the emotional 10 or of his time
tarnished his status and almost cost his life. general who approached his capital trial to keep it on a factual not emotional. he played out of a clear account of the organizational problems the nation had declared war with little or no preparation and the general based shortages of men and materials. he denied he ever showed cowardice to take pragmatic action and to save the lives of his doomed troops. disputed claims also that emotional had any useful effect general hull argued although they were patriotic in their expression had no
service neither men nor officers had never been tried. commack is not extraordinary i should have a want of confidence of the troops. he insisted patriotic carter was no substitute for effectiveness. general hull tried to steer the trial back to the true jonge is facing a nation going to war with limited military ever structure. critics against the federal list agreed completely with general hull those who feel great ardor before any military action were substituting appealing for form. during the last days and the first war opponents of railed against ardent passions to create public support for the war.
according to federal list members come and men who joined the fight and feelings were acting out of dilution responding like sheep to the prompting of sen. "i feel as an american love of the country" said the pastor from newcastle main preached july 23, 1812. he argued war recedes from the worst passions and tens greatly to inflame them. also quoting from a bible demanding the parishioners " could then not come of your last fed is in your members? better listed not dispute there was a deep connection between the motion bill -- emotional but
insisted war negative 10 stemmed from central lost and deserve pronunciation. not celebration. when doing wonders thought about lust they had carnal desire directly in mind. that is the definition provided in the first ever dictionary published 896. to be followed lust to have quote muck -- comex irregular desires to to do something in bet lust full manner. webster also noted to do something lustally was with
courage between sexual arousal and courageous resolve was woven into the vocabulary into the era of 1812. ministers who were post found eager supporters. along with a formal sermons there was a lot of writings in circulated by those who took similar points of view. one poem posted from william allen rhymed war, carnage, devastation end, many fall and die and the sacred paid to we read from our lust proceed. were opponents easily accepted the association between pilot action and file passion. the biblical basis was
accepted is common knowledge across new england. among the supporters the same equation was made to yield the different solution. quote -- pro more riders said the was the essential connection between love and patriotism. intended by their nature to stir the blood to motivate action encourage people to pursue gore as pleasure. of the horse with the equation between love and liberty the song when like this the hobby of soldiers and time of great wars reaches battles blood wound and scars. in peace you observe it is different the trade is. in peace the hobby of soldiers is ladies.
suite creatures now and then again astride of their hobbies just like the men. with smiles the guy zero os wheaties we trot and ample just as they please. the hobbies have been known no tyrant working shaw of the throne. there united and 11 be said. there hobby is liberty and peace and free trade to enunciate americans cast sexual together the war could be eclipsed by the erotic encouraging men and women to look at it as personal enjoyment. have had widespread political implications. now all broadly speaking the songs helped to undercut the
tedious moral calculations. more specifically the emphasis on the russian transform the general fear and do something that was a boon for president madison. on november 4th the impact of the surrender and at the height of his reelection effort he declared the nation and spirit rises loss of an important post in the brave men surrendered inspired a new order and determination. -- later he won the bid for reelection. even the president relied on a ardor for the preservation of the nation general hull stood little chance to win his case. he bore sole responsibility for the failure of detroit.
systemic a prepared this he had to overcome the inability to understand the emotional appeal to the people when print culture made public opinion matter matter, marked him as a man out of step with the times. in the end nine of general hull protestations to override the nation. he was handed a capital sentence by the court. president madison ultimately reprieved said general but only after the election was one per proclaims mattered as much as accomplishment that love made an important contribution open the way for inhabitants to imagines their own private feelings could aid in public efforts and so few could claim immediate experience, the
kind that guided his decision, romantic stories could sway public opinion. turning to the close of the war with andrew jackson, it proved to be teeseventteesevent een antithesis and everywhere to expose the nation to defeat jackson closed it in a blaze of glory earning him lasting renown. of polled claimed our direction that nothing. jackson understood emotion could be successful and the effective proxy. give me one second. so let's talk about jackson's triumph in your
land the patriotic romance. the narrative portrayal came from hence friend john e. 10. he said out delivered the to of a direct comparison to fall when general hull he had given a more than 2,000 prisoners jackson had over 2000 casualty's bricker general hull hero of the american revolution jackson prove to self capable of winning with a ragtag militia up. wow! general hull based the capital trial john e. tenth said he had risen to greatness seven natural order of his temper and in every campaign jack said was
aware of his troops to inspire them with the ardor of his bowes some. to describe your land specifically with his speech he made to the men that made clear the link between patriotic action umbro eaton claimed he was to preserve their ardor to country. jackson and eaton said look to your liberty, property, the chastity of your wives and daughters. jackson warns men to be where out the worst british soldiers could inflict rate. this was unauthorized and not commonplace but there was one isolated documented incident in hampton virginia.
jackson drew on that event to take retrospect of the british army at hampton every bosom that glows with patriotism will be inspired by directly invoking rape to prod the men to action explicitly said the war of 1812 was a fight against british sexual tierney as a struggle for any definition of liberty. in fact, jackson and eaton spread around a false story of english to privity in your lands to arouse americans to patriotism in the aftermath of the war. february 161815 when the house of representatives for a of a general resolution of
thanks jarret ingersoll took to the floor to this stage exclaimed "for the first time during a long arduous session we can all feel like. we are all of one mind to leap up to the embrace of the other. why? his success was known for one week but ingersoll had a new piece of gossip word had just arrived that rate was the reward of victory. there without example never
has there been disparity of law. it electrified the capital with the most extraordinary defeat. this is my best to get at link in my book and trace the rumored to the source the myth sent the message the american war boosters had wanted to give with the contest and validity of claims to champion a pretty trying to seize the moral high ground of western expansion the story of booty and beauty look to meyer the
british bond hypocrisy. as eaton explains booty and beauty the watchword of the army and the battle. the criminality is increased from being the act of the people who pull themselves up as examples to everything that is correct and proper. with accusations of sexual the privity. it could be the last guardians conversely the british could no longer holed themselves up as a civilized and third. besides making great gossip as a nation with the most fundamental form of liberty
and sexual consent. each person who repeated the story help to validate assertions men fought for country because of the romantic love and because of their determination to offer women protection. u.s. soldiers the love of liberty was different from british charity per growth through 1815 cities and towns across the nation through dinners and dances in honor of jackson. he attended many of these. as a victory tour. celebrating the coming of peace to repeat them at -- the myth of jackson saved the women of the country from rape. celebrants offered a toast with the feelings of patriotism and duty opposed to the watchword of beauty
and beauty. jackson would raise his glass. the myth became over and into the national fabric. popular song said paradise how new orleans is aimed to wealth and beauty there is girls and of every hue. so if he was lucky he had the girls and cotton bags in spite of old kentucky. interestingly the story of beauty and beauty show white men and black men of new orleans fighting side-by-side to protect women of every hue from gaining style attacks of british forces. contemporaries celebrated jackson's victory to make claims the british had claimed to target black and white women alike. the some close at the
british took to flight to and left us all the beauty. send for us kentucky boys we will protect your ladies. the song was soon printed across the country. the real beauty of the story as it helped men politicians to patriarchs argue mass rape was tyranny. men could claim freedom and love was the root and fruit of every liberty. logic as falling a month became patriotic duties the right to procreate define the essence of freedom. even those with no formal voice could lead to their weight to the national effort to maximize the number of people to come for
the country relaxing barriers to participation and finding new ways to inspire loyalty, encouraging reproduction. with the stress of four making every percents contribution account, a patriotic feet was connected in new ways. where to 17 claimed emotion without accomplishment meant nothing but jackson proved him wrong. his stirring victory at new orleans occurred two weeks after their recipes treaty that returned all matters to status quo. so jackson's remarkable feat mattered not all but symbolically the battle of norman's was a defining moment for the nation. it occurred through print
culture. gossip about the british scandal invoked the kind of yearning sure to stir action. to hasten the party's extinction, national devotion, augment population, motivate territorial expansion. not to say jackson did not make rio contributions. he used the wartime opportunity to get 22 million acres of land of georgia and alabama were from the greek nation but also the love was defended at northlands not death delivered at jackson -- fort jackson that earned jackson enduring fame. as long as all inhabitants of united states motivated by love for their families and country supported the continued right to keep new
ground, military encounters matter less than the general promotion of feeling. historians have begun to appreciate one new way to look at the war of 1812 not only the first declared war as a foreign enemy and a different -- decisive moment but also the first civil war. the war of 1812 divided the nation into splintered political factions but united it around a new vision of patriotism. in this assessment it must be significant at the time occurred the war was successfully portrayed as good fun. it was a frolic and patriotism was the natural result who could have never predicted the devastation of the civil war?
likening award to exercise of love to not prepared anybody for the moral applications of conflict. amazing thing the first major battle of the civil war of bull run caught contemporaries by surprise. people brought out picnics to watch and cheer and they were shocked to the core by the carnage. 5,000 dead in a single day. more than all the years of 1812. no wonder a population and reared by month had not given thought to the cost of armed conflict. the war of 1812 discovering unifying potential to make support the love of country like and to romantic affections prepare the
continues to exist well after the war but much more prominent at a local level but fades from national prominence after the war. because of the ascendance of the men who could shredded to the war effort going straight from madison to monroe and into the era of good feelings where the nation as a whole does rally around to the unprecedented extent. >> what happened to the men? they were just sent home? [laughter]
most of them were repatriated. general hull was furloughed by the british because they thought it would be to their strategic advantage to do so. he was court-martialed so that did not work out so well. [laughter] >> what is the canadian perspective on the war of 1812? >> i have no firsthand knowledge as they teach at nyu but i have been talking to canadian panels but this is celebrated as the important war that made in the canadian nation of. not a victory for the night is states or britain but
canada regards it as a victory for them. to turn back american and phase-in efforts that after the war of 1812 there has never been the cross-border conflict. >> i can confirm that. i'm an american who spent a good part of my youth and canada and it is a source of canadian pride americans were defeated. [laughter] >> the detailed history of the boston tea party, and then american and civil war to know everything about that. the battle of antietam and gettysburg.
in 1957 realized i knew more about the revolution and civil war then my colleagues here and academics. whenever heard one word about the war of 1812. it was not mentioned. and not in history. any idea why? >> in australia with the america 10 revolution almost nothing on the war of 1812? the british did not regard the war as an event at all. it is just one small sideshow the midst of the global war.
important war is the european continent not north america up. but it was not taught very much here either. if you just look with military and diplomatic terms, things did not change very much for the united states. but it is worth taking a new look from a cultural perspective and to declare war and to use culture to mold public opinion. >> it seems the war came to an end rather abruptly. even before the peace treaty was signed. the british were winning. why ended so abruptly? >> negotiations for peace
>> thank you very much. a very interesting talk. i'm wondering, the 50th anniversary of the war of 1812 was in 1862 at the beginning of the civil war. i'm wondering the way the united states remembered the war of 1812 was in any way affected i the carnage that you pointed out? >> was it affected by the carnage that i pointed out? no, just to clarify there wasn't much carnage in the war of 1812. >> the carnage of the civil war. >> that is a fascinating question. i feel like he you just gave me
a new look topic. the answer is i don't know but it would be really interesting to go back and look. i have to think they made been too preoccupied. in fact i think that they were much more prominent at the 75th anniversary band at the 50th. so that is what i would say quickly but i think it's a really interesting question. >> thank you. [inaudible] >> we had a very small at the outset of the war and it did change after the war. one of the lessons they learned. this is a lesson that had been learned obviously during the american revolution but there was also a real fear of a standing army at the time to cut us of the experience. people today don't realize that in the 18th century, a
standing fleet was standing. the british did not build army barracks. been a station troops in boston they recorded and private people's homes, like it or not. so there was a real worry about the dangers of the standing army and that prevented the nation from learning the lessons of their revolution which was that having a well-trained, disciplined and supplied fighting force was really crucial to being effective. that was washington's achievement, to kind of put that in place by the end of the revolution and so started out in the summer of 1812, he had a very small number of regular troops, a few hundred compared to a few thousand militiamen. most of them had never seen active service and were none too happy to be marched away from their homes, hundreds of miles to the ford of detroit.
the idea with the militia was that it was the home guard. you are supposed to literally defend your local community and people were rightfully worried that if they marched off to serve in faraway battlefields they were leaving their own home and heart undefended so this was really kind of untenable for them. that created quite a few problems on the ground. in 1812, there were only really surmounted at the battle of new orleans. now, recent history has actually shown that there were more regular troops and better ammunition at new orleans then popular myth had in 1815 but in 1815 what people were really celebrating with the idea that jackson had gone to battle with the buckskin ragtag militia, the kentucky boys and that they had finally succeeded in overcoming earlier militia problems.
>> the claritin navy had some influences in the war of 1812, not established there and i'm wondering if your theory on the romantic passion, anything they related to the navy because i always thought sailors for more romantically passionate so were there any stories like that? [laughter] >> thank you so much. the question was worth a more romantically attached? i actually have a whole chapter on sailors in the book. if you give a talk like this you have to figure out what you're going to abstract. but you are right. there are -- and they are very much in the same kind of pitcher and extremely were talking about. >> what was the general's involvement in the american
revolution? >> he was an officer in the american revolution. and you know, quite successful. i can't name his individual battles off the top of my head, but yeah he was an officer. >> do you have any further questions? i want to present you with a gift. this is a pen made from wood from a tree -- and not max. >> thank you. >> thank you very much. >> thank you all for coming. [applause]
>> "hemingway's boat" everything he loved in life, and lost. mr. hendrickson what was the pillar? >> the polar was a 38-foot seagoing mission cruiser thathe hemingway bought in 1934 and owned for the last 27 years of his life. which probably was thes most evr beloved material possession that he ever on. i thought maybe i s could tell e hemingway story and a in a new way through the pilar as a figurative storytelling device. >> and what did you find out? >> i will into cuba in 1935, in 2005, excuse me. 1935 was when he had the boat and in 2005 i want to have been and when the guards wereot looking, i surreptitiously leaned over and touched the boat,n which was kind of the moving experience because the boat was dry-docked, was on a
hillside at hemingway's home ano it was in terrible condition. thirst and only wanted to get into water, but that further convinced me i had a story to tell through the prism of this boat because when hemingway got the boat, he was the reigning monarch of american literature. he was at the very apex, and when he lost the boat, when he lost everything, when he killed himself by shotgun 27 years later, this boat lasted him through three wives, the nobel prize, and all his ruin, which is why it's sub titled everything he loved in life and lost. >> when it was built? >> it was built in a shipyard in brooklyn by the wheeler manufacturing company which in the 1930s was a very, very rep reputable fishing boat, cruiser boat, wooden hold construction
boat company, and typical hemingway studied it out and looked for a long time before getting the boat, the exact boat he wanted, and he had it custom fitted, a stock boat, and it was fitted out to specifications, but went into the gulf stream off key west and began catching these 850 pound marlin, and that became his refuge from the world. >> how much did it cost? >> in 1934 cost -- [inaudible] had a down payment given by the editor of a new magazine in america called "esquire" and the editor gave him $3,000 to the new dream boat if you write articles for me. >> paul, you spent time on
hemmingway's family, why? >> you know, i wanted to understand all the people, not just hemingway himself who came across the boat. one of the most power. story is the story of his third son, gregly ri, who was a doctor, but ended his life as a tran december diet and a transgender, and, yes, it is a kind of multibigraphical approach which seems to be what i know how to do. >> gregory was gigi? >> papa's nickname was gigi, and he actually became gloria. at the end of his life, he had
had a complete sex change and died tragically in 2001 in a woman's jail cell in miami, and i knew him because of a washington post reporter. in 1987, i tracked down all three hemingway sons and spent time with the eldest, with the middle son, who was alive, and with gigi the third son who died in 2001. >> one is still alive? >> yeah, patrick. he's 84. he lives in montana. he is the surviving hemingway son who had a lot to do with the life of his father's boat. >> all three sons spent time on the boat? >> absolutely. as i said, he was married four times, three wives spent time on that boat, but, you know, through a combination of our research and letters own going to the various repositories of hemingway material, i was able
to find out this boat just became such a central idea to his existence. you go out there, peter, and your dmons follow you, all your problems on shore, they, as we know, they come with us. we know about the alcohol in earnest hemingway's life, and how extensive was it, paul, and what about depression? was that a factor in the life as well? >> what? >> depression. >> oh, there's no question that hemingway suffered from what we recognize today as manic depression, bipolarrism. there was alcoholism. i think if he was alive today he might be medicated to prevent some of these things and possibly his suicide which raises a very thorny question.
would he have written as brilliantly as he did if he was not suffering so much? that's a hard, hard question that too many artists have to face up to. >> paul, long time reporter for the washington post, what other topics have you written about as an author of books? >> i wrote about robert mack that mar, a name in this city, architect of vietnam, that book published in 1996 called "the living and the dead," and i wrote a book called "sons of mississippi," the book previous to this, a study of the civil rights south and integration of james meredith at the university of ol miss. i like to pick out subjects that i feel have a lot of resonance to the culture history biography. >> and paul's most recent book